Istraživači sa Tepper School of Business sa Sveučilišta Carnegie Mellon objavili su novo istraživanje koje baca novo svjetlo na utjecaj Airbnb-a i sličnih kompanija "ekonomije dijeljenja" na ugostiteljsku industriju. Nalazi sugeriraju da u nekim slučajevima prisutnost Airbnb-a može pomoći privući veću potražnju na nekim tržištima, dok istovremeno izaziva tradicionalne strategije cijena hotela.
Studija koja će biti objavljena u svibanjskom izdanju časopisa INFORMS Marketing Science naslovljena je "Konkurentska dinamika u ekonomiji dijeljenja: analiza u kontekstu Airbnb-a i hotela", a autor su istraživači sa Sveučilišta Carnegie Mellon.
The researchers focused on the entry of the flexible-capacity sharing economy platform Airbnb and studied its impact on the competitive landscape in the traditional fixed-capacity lodging industry. They examined how the sharing economy has fundamentally changed the way the hospitality industry accommodates demand fluctuations and how traditional hotels should respond.
Autori studije uzeli su u obzir tržišne uvjete, sezonske obrasce, cijene i kvalitetu hotela, sastav potrošača i ponudu smještaja u Airbnb-u na određenim tržištima. Također su uzeli u obzir čimbenike kao što je Airbnb-ova strategija prema poslovnim putnicima, vladini propisi o Airbnb-u, promjene troškova hostinga zbog poreznih promjena i usluga trećih strana, zajedno s profesionalnošću domaćina.
“Our analysis gleaned a number of insights,” said the authors. “In the end, we arrived at four conclusions. Airbnb cannibalizes hotel sales, especially for lower end hotels. Second, Airbnb can help stabilize or even increase demand during peak travel seasons, offsetting the potential for higher hotel prices which can sometimes be a deterrent. Third, the flexible lodging capacity created by Airbnb may disrupt traditional pricing strategies in some markets, actually helping to minimize the need for seasonal pricing. And finally, as Airbnb targets business travelers, higher-end hotels are most likely to be affected.”
Po pitanju kanibalizacije, istraživači su otkrili da su na nekim tržištima na kojima je potražnja sezonskija, cijene hotela i kvaliteta relativno niže, a udio putnika u slobodno vrijeme veći, potrošači mogu vjerojatnije odabrati Airbnb, što stvara pritisak na konkurentne cijene na hotelima.
The impact of Airbnb on demand is driven by seasonal fluctuations of capacity. Traditionally, hotels have fixed capacity and tend to raise prices during peak seasons and lower them during off-peak seasons. But with the presence of flexible capacity from Airbnb, travelers have more options during peak seasons, forcing the market to lower seasonal pricing. Still, during off-peak seasons, as Airbnb capacity contracts, hotels may not have to lower their prices significantly. Interestingly, as capacity between Airbnb and hotels increase with demand, that expanded capacity may have the effect of attracting more travelers to a particular destination.
To date, Airbnb sales are largely derived from leisure travelers who make up 90 percent of Airbnb sales. As the company targets the business travel marketplace, the researchers found that high-end hotels are likely to be most affected, primarily due to the higher or lower operating costs faced by Airbnb hosts in their markets.
“High-end hotels benefit more from higher Airbnb host costs, but also suffer more from lower Airbnb host costs,” said the authors. “Another noteworthy finding is that the benefit of higher Airbnb host costs levels off as the costs increase, whereas the loss from lower Airbnb host costs continues to decrease as the costs decrease. This causes us to believe that imposing stricter regulations on Airbnb that raises the cost of hosting does not help hotel profitability beyond a certain point. Yet, reducing Airbnb host costs can hurt hotel profitability.”